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AIDS Research

Status of selected nutrients and progression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

Am J Clin Nutr 2000 Sep;72(3):809-15 (ISSN: 0002-9165)

Bogden JD; Kemp FW; Han S; Li W; Bruening K; Denny T; Oleske JM; Lloyd J; Baker H; Perez G; Kloser P; Skurnick J; Louria DB Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, Newark.bogden@umdnj.edu.

BACKGROUND: Immune function is highly dependent on nutritional status because the large mass and high rate of cellular turnover of the immune system make it a major user of nutrients. Furthermore, nutrient requirements may be increased during acute and chronic infections, including HIV-1 infection. OBJECTIVE: The current study was designed to assess relations among HIV-1 progression and 11 nutritional and demographic variables. DESIGN: The participants were 106 HIV-infected outpatients and 29 uninfected control subjects (n = 89 men and 46 women; age range: 35-57 y). The HIV-infected subjects represented a broad range of disease progression. RESULTS: We found lower concentrations of plasma and erythrocyte magnesium and of erythrocyte reduced glutathione beginning early in the course of HIV-1 infection. Significantly decreased hematocrit and increased serum copper concentration developed only late in the course of the disease. Statistically significant univariate associations were found between the CD4(+) T lymphocyte count and hematocrit, plasma magnesium concentration, and plasma zinc concentration. The lowest erythrocyte magnesium concentrations occurred in HIV-infected subjects who consumed alcoholic beverages. Independent variables that were significant joint predictors of CD4(+) cell count in multiple regression analyses were hematocrit and plasma free choline and zinc concentrations. These 3 factors together explained 43% of the variability in CD4(+) cell counts. CONCLUSION: The results provide evidence that compromised nutritional and antioxidant status begin early in the course of HIV-1 infection and may contribute to disease progression.

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