Micronutrients and the patogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection
Br J Nutr 1999 Mar;81(3):181-9 (ISSN: 0007-1145)
Semba RD; Tang AM Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine,
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. email@example.com.
Micronutrient deficiencies may be common during human immunodeficiency
virus (HIV) infection. Insufficient dietary intake, malabsorption, diarrhoea,
and impaired storage and altered metabolism of micronutrients can contribute
to the development of micronutrient deficiencies. Low plasma or serum
levels of vitamins A, E, B6, B12 and C, carotenoids, Se, and Zn are common
in many HIV-infected populations. Micronutrient deficiencies may contribute
to the pathogenesis of HIV infection through increased oxidative stress
and compromised immunity. Low levels or intakes of micronutrients such
as vitamins A, E, B6 and B12, Zn and Se have been associated with adverse
clinical outcomes during HIV infection, and new studies are emerging which
suggest that micronutrient supplementation may help reduce morbidity and
mortality during HIV infection.