Micronutrient malnutrition, infection, and immunity: an overview.
Nutritional Review 2002 May;60(5 Pt 2):S40-5
and infectious diseases often coexist and exhibit complex interactions
leading to the vicious cycle of malnutrition and infections among underprivileged
populations of the developing countries, particularly in preschool children.
Several micronutrients such as vitamin A, beta-carotene, folic
acid, vitamin B12 vitamin C, riboflavin, iron, zinc, and selenium, have
immunomodulating functions and thus influence the susceptibility of a
host to infectious diseases and the course and outcome of such diseases.
Certain of these micronutrients also possess antioxidant functions that
not only regulate immune homeostasis of the host, but also alter the genome
of the microbes, particularly in viruses, resulting in grave consequences
like resurgence of old infectious diseases or the emergence of new infections.
These micronutrient infection and immune function interactions
and their clinical and public health relevance in developing countries
are briefly reviewed in this article.